1. Brouwers MC, Kho ME, Browman GP, Burgers JS, Cluzeau F, Feder G, et al. AGREE II: advancing guideline development, reporting and evaluation in health care. Cmaj. 2010;182(18):E839-42.

2. Fitzgerald M, Gocentas R, Stevens J. Chest Trauma In: Cameron P, Jelinek G, Kelly A-M, Brown A, Little M, editors. Textbook Of Adult Emergency Medicine 4th ed Elsevier2015.

3. Morley EJ, Johnson S, Leibner E, Shahid J. Emergency department evaluation and management of blunt chest and lung trauma (Trauma CME). Emerg Med Pract. 2016;18(6):1-20.

4. American College of Surgeons. Advanced Trauma Life Support 9th edition. Chicago: American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma. 2017.

5. Blyth A. Thoracic Trauma. The BMJ. 2014;348:bmj.g1137.

6. Groombridge C, Maini A, O'Keeffe F, Noonan M, Smit DV, Mathew J, et al. Resuscitative thoracotomy. Emergency Medicine Australasia. 2021;33(1):138-41.

7. The Royal Childrens Hospital Melbourne. ‘Chest Injury’ In The Paediatric Trauma Manual 2016 [Available from:

8. Chien CY, Chen YH, Han ST, Blaney GN, Huang TS, Chen KF. The number of displaced rib fractures is more predictive for complications in chest trauma patients. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2017;25(1):19.

9. Bowman JA, Jurkovich GJ, Nishijima DK, Utter GH. Older Adults With Isolated Rib Fractures Do Not Require Routine Intensive Care Unit Admission. J Surg Res. 2020;245:492-9.

10. Michetti CP, Fakhry SM, Brasel K, Martin ND, Teicher EJ, Newcomb A. Trauma ICU Prevalence Project: the diversity of surgical critical care. Trauma Surg Acute Care Open. 2019;4(1):e000288.

11. Laan DV, Vu TD, Thiels CA, Pandian TK, Schiller HJ, Murad MH, et al. Chest wall thickness and decompression failure: A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing anatomic locations in needle thoracostomy. Injury. 2016;47(4):797-804.

12. Aho JM, Thiels CA, El Khatib MM, Ubl DS, Laan DV, Berns KS, et al. Needle thoracostomy: Clinical effectiveness is improved using a longer angiocatheter. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2016;80(2):272-7.

13. Hecker M, Hegenscheid K, Völzke H, Hinz P, Lange J, Ekkernkamp A, et al. Needle decompression of tension pneumothorax: Population-based epidemiologic approach to adequate needle length in healthy volunteers in Northeast Germany. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2016;80(1):119-24.

14. Leatherman M, Held J, Fluke L, McEvoy C, Inaba K, Grabo D, et al. Relative device stability of anterior vs. axillary needle decompression for tension pneumothorax during casualty movement: Preliminary analysis of a human cadaver model. The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 2017;83.

15. Merelman A, Zink N, Fisher AD, Lauria M, Braude D. FINGER: A Novel Approach to Teaching Simple Thoracostomy. Air Medical Journal. 2022;41(6):526-9.

16. Fitzgerald M, Mackenzie CF, Marasco S, Hoyle R, Kossmann T. Pleural decompression and drainage during trauma reception and resuscitation. Injury. 2008;39(1):9-20.

17. Ambulance Victoria. CWI/OPS/170: MICA Flight Paramedic Pleural Decompression with Finger Thoracostomy. 2016.

18. Zeiler J, Idell S, Norwood S, Cook A. Hemothorax: A Review of the Literature. Clin Pulm Med. 2020;27(1):1-12.

19. Ebrahimi A, Yousefifard M, Mohammad Kazemi H, Rasouli HR, Asady H, Moghadas Jafari A, et al. Diagnostic Accuracy of Chest Ultrasonography versus Chest Radiography for Identification of Pneumothorax: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Tanaffos. 2014;13(4):29-40.

20. Hyacinthe AC, Broux C, Francony G, Genty C, Bouzat P, Jacquot C, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in the acute assessment of common thoracic lesions after trauma. Chest. 2012;141(5):1177-83.

21. Zieleskiewicz L, Fresco R, Duclos G, Antonini F, Mathieu C, Medam S, et al. Integrating extended focused assessment with sonography for trauma (eFAST) in the initial assessment of severe trauma: Impact on the management of 756 patients. Injury. 2018;49(10):1774-80.

22. Spahn DR, Bouillon B, Cerny V, Duranteau J, Filipescu D, Hunt BJ, et al. The European guideline on management of major bleeding and coagulopathy following trauma: fifth edition. Critical Care. 2019;23(1):98.

23. Sinnaeve PR, Adriaenssens T. A contemporary look at pericardiocentesis. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2019;29(7):375-83.

24. Queensland Ambulance Service. Clinical Practice Procedures: Other/Clinical handover 2021 [Available from:

25. Department of Health. Protocol for the clinical handover of ambulance patients in the ED. . In: Victoria. MSG, editor. 2014.

26. Desai N, Harris, T. Extended focused assessment with sonography in trauma. BJA Educ. 2018;18(2):57-62.

27. Balvers K, Van der Horst M, Graumans M, Boer C, Binnekade JM, Goslings JC, et al. Hypothermia as a predictor for mortality in trauma patients at admittance to the Intensive Care Unit. J Emerg Trauma Shock. 2016;9(3):97-102.

28. Department of Health. Protocol for the clinical handover of ambulance patients in the ED. State Government Victoria. 2014.

29. Ozakin E, Yazlamaz NO, Kaya FB, Karakilic EM, Bilgin M. Perfusion Index Measurement in Predicting Hypovolemic Shock in Trauma Patients. The Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2020;59(2):238-45.

30. Department of Health and Aged Care. Australian Immunisation Handbook: Tetanus: Australian Government 2022 [Available from: